The most common heart disease is coronary heart disease. This disease occurs, when the oxygen-rich blood supply to the heart muscle is hampered by plaque on the heart's blood vessels or coronary arteries.
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In the walls of the arteries can occur in the condition of atheroscosis, namely the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, such as calcium and fibrin, which form obstruction or plaque in arterial blood vessels. Plaque can form on artery walls even since a person is young. But increasing age, the risk of plaque formation will be higher. If left untreated, the length of this plaque may lead to a reduction in the elastity of the arteries and to interfere with the flow of blood.
The larger the plaque, the more narrow the heart arteries, so that the oxygen-rich blood supply to the heart will be less. The plaque can also loose and then clog most of the entire blood flow in the arteries. When the blood flow barrier occurs in the coronary arteries, a heart attack can occur.
Things that increase coronary heart disease risk
So far, the exact cause of plaque formation in the arteries is still unknown. But some of the following can increase the risk of a person having atherosclerosis:
Smoking is one of the most contributing factors in the increased risk of coronary heart disease. Smokers are predicted to have a risk of developing coronary heart disease 24% greater than those who do not smoke. Nicotine content and carbon monoxide in cigarettes make the heart work heavier than usual. Both substances also increase the risk of blood clots in the arteries. Unfortunately, other chemicals in cigarettes can also damage the coronary artery lining, thereby increasing the risk of coronary heart disease.
Cholesterol that flows too much in the blood can cause coronary heart disease. The type of cholesterol that makes the risk of coronary heart disease increased is low-density lipoprotein (LDL) commonly referred to as ' bad ' cholesterol. Because it is this cholesterol that has a tendency to stick and hoard in the coronary arteries.
Diabetics are predicted to have two times higher risk of coronary heart disease. It is suspected because diabetics have a thicker wall coating of blood vessels. The thickness of the coronary artery walls can interfere with the smooth flow of blood to the heart.
The occurrence of blood clots
Blood clots or thrombosis occurring in the coronary arteries will inhibit blood supply to the heart. The process of blood clotting is closely related to other factors, such as the process of inflammation, high cholesterol levels, uncontrolled blood sugar, and stress.
High blood pressure
High blood pressure can also increase the risk of coronary heart disease. A person is categorized as having high blood pressure if it has a systolic pressure at a range of 130 mmHg or more, or a diastolic pressure of 80 mmHg or more. The systolic pressure itself is defined as the size of blood pressure when the heart contracts to pump blood out. While diastolic pressure is blood pressure when the heart muscle is stretched to fill blood.
How to prevent coronary heart disease
To minimize the risk of coronary heart disease, there are several ways that you can do, including:
- Conducting regular exercise.
- Apply healthy diet and balanced nutrition, eat fruit and vegetable intake, reduce foods that contain cholesterol and excess salt.
- Lose weight if excessive.
- Control blood pressure.
- Control stress.
- Adequate rest. Research shows that lack of quality and sleep hours affects the increased risk of coronary heart disease.
The dangers of coronary heart disease will affect your quality of life, and can even cause sudden death due to heart attack. Therefore, consult a doctor immediately if you are at high risk of developing this disease or have experienced symptoms of coronary heart disease, such as chest pain that occurs during heavy activity or stress, shortness of breath, cold sweat, and Chest pain that spreads to the arms and neck.
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